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The traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language to read, write, listen, and speak. In modern contexts, the word refers to reading and writing at a level adequate for communication, or at level that lets one understand and communicate ideas in a literate society, so as to take part in that society. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has drafted the following definition: " Literacy is the ability to identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate and compute, using printed and written materials associated with varying contexts. Literacy involves a continuum of learning to enable an individual to achieve his or her goals, to develop his or her knowledge and potential, and to participate fully in the wider society."

Policy makers also argue that literacy increases job opportunities and access to higher education. In Kerala, India, for example, female and child mortality rates declined dramatically in the 1960s, when the girls who were educated in the educational reforms after 1948 began to raise families. Recent researchers, however, argue that correlations such as the one listed above may have more to do with the effects of schooling rather than literacy in general. Regardless, the focus of educatioal systems worldwide include a basic concept around communication through text and print, which is the foundation of most definitions of literacy.

Asian, Arab and Sub-Saraha African countries are regions with the lowest literacy rates at about 10% to 12%. East Asia and Latin America have illiteray rates in the 10 to 15% region while developed countries have illiteray rates of a few percent. Within ethnically homogeneous regions, literacy rates can vary widely from region to region. This often coincides with the region's wealth or urbanization, though many factors play a role.



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